Void Contract Definition and Explanation

Void Contract: Definition and Explanation

In the world of business, contracts are a vital component of deals and transactions. They outline the terms and conditions that parties must follow and provide clarity in case of disputes. However, not all contracts are enforceable or valid. Some contracts may be void from the start. In this article, we will explore the concept of void contracts, their definition, and explanation.

Definition of Void Contract

A void contract is a contract that has no legal effect, and therefore, it cannot be enforced by either party. It is essentially an agreement that is unenforceable from its conception. A void contract is also known as a null contract, which means it is considered legally invalid from the beginning. In simpler terms, it`s a contract that cannot be performed and has no legal standing.

Explanation of Void Contract

A contract can be void for various reasons, including:

1. Illegal Contracts – A contract is considered void if it violates the law. For instance, if a contract involves illegal activity such as drug trafficking or prostitution, it’s considered a void contract.

2. Capacity – A contract can also be void if one or both parties lack the legal capacity to enter into an agreement. For example, a minor cannot enter into a contract legally.

3. Duress/Undue Influence – A contract can also be void if one party forces or coerces the other into signing it. This is known as duress or undue influence.

4. Mutual Mistake – If both parties are mistaken about the agreement`s terms, the contract is considered void.

5. Fraud – A contract that is signed under false pretenses or intentional misrepresentation is void.

6. Impossible to Perform – A contract is void if it is impossible to perform. For instance, if the subject matter of the contract is destroyed, the contract becomes void.

What Happens to a Void Contract?

Since a void contract is considered unenforceable, neither party can claim any rights or obligations from it. Both parties are legally released from their obligations, and any consideration exchanged must be returned to its original owner. A void contract cannot be ratified, meaning it cannot be made legally enforceable even if both parties agree to it. Instead, the parties must create a new agreement that complies with the law.


In summary, a void contract is a legal document that has no legal standing from its inception. It is considered an unenforceable agreement that cannot be performed or upheld in court. There are various reasons why a contract may be void, including illegality, incapacity, duress/undue influence, mutual mistake, fraud, and impossibility of performance. In case of a void contract, both parties are legally released from their obligations, and any consideration exchanged must be returned to its original owner. As a businessperson, it’s essential to know the concept of void contracts to avoid entering into agreements that could be legally unenforceable.

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